The Psychoanalytic Training Program

is a 4-year program in the theory and techniques of Psychoanalysis. The program utilizes didactic courses, seminars, tutorials, supervisory experiences and personal analysis. The candidates will follow an intensive course of study that will be divided into three 11-week trimesters each year for a period of four years, with each trimester including four courses. Courses are held for 1-1/2 hours, from 6 PM to 7:30 PM and from 8PM to 9:30 PM respectively on Tuesday and Thursday evenings. In addition, the candidate is required to establish ongoing supervisory relationships from an approved list, and enter into personal analysis with an approved training analyst.

After the four year course of study,

ongoing supervision, personal analysis, and an original case presentation paper that establishes competence in understanding the interaction between theory and technique, a candidate will be granted a certificate for the practice of Psychoanalysis and Psychotherapy.

Candidates are required to have

an advanced degree that allows them to practice psychotherapy independently according to Section 8 of the New York State Education Law. There will also be a formal application and an interview by members of the admission committee prior to acceptance. For candidates with previous training experience, the Director of Training will evaluate their experience and course credits will be granted for up to one year or more of work at another institution. If the candidate has taken more than one year of work at another institute, we will try to accommodate an alternative coursework development as to not have the candidate overlap courses already taken.

Tuition is paid in full at the beginning of each year. Tuition scholarships based on financial need are available; please inquire at time of application. A payment plan can be arranged if necessary.


Postgrad The Institute of the
Postgraduate Psychoanalytic Society

Nobuko Meaders, LCSW
President of the Board of Directors

21 East 10th Street, # 3A
New York, New York 10003


  • First year

    The Freud Reading Seminar

    This seminar will run for three 11-week trimesters throughout the first year. In the course of his writing Freud developed a series of conceptualizations of psychic functioning and created models of the mind to explain them. To help the student in his or her understanding of the evolution of Freud's thought, the course will be broken down into three historical periods, each period covered during a trimester. Freud I {1895-1905} Hysteria, Dreams, The Unconscious and Wishes, Psychic Conflict, Topographical Theory, First Theory of Anxiety Freud II {1905-1917} Libido Theory (Three Essays); Narcissism and Object Love, Papers on Metapsychology (Further Vicissitudes of Libido Theory), Identification and the Ego Ideal Freud III {1918-1938} Dual Instinct Theory (The Aggressive Drive), Second Theory of Anxiety, Structural Theory (and The Superego), Female Sexuality.

    Introduction to Psychoanalytic Treatment

    This course will introduce students to treatment issues specific to psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic psychotherapy. Objective: To generate psychoanalytic curiosity and creative thinking by listening to clinical material with an open mind. Through frank and non-judgmental discussions on the salient issues specific to beginning an analytic treatment, we will define and explore the roles of active listening, therapeutic action, appropriate interventions, transference phenomena, empathy, neutrality, self disclosure, including intersubjectivity and other dynamics as they present themselves to each therapist in his or her work with patients. The discussions will be enhanced by assigned readings and the clinical case presentations of each candidate, with the emphasis on the role of the therapist as co-creator of the analytic experience specific to each analytic dyad

    Introduction to Psychoanalytic Treatment II

    This course will focus on the diagnosis of psychopathology, including preliminary assessment for analyzability, both from a psychoanalytic and developmental perspective. Included will be a consideration of etiology and implications for treatment. Clinical material will enhance our understanding of the various disorders from neurosis to psychosis and will touch on some of the typical transference and countertransference manifestations. The requirements for the course include readings, class participation and either a class presentation or a 3-4 page paper due the final day of the class.

    Introduction to Psychoanalytic Treatment III

    Assessment of Analyzability. The course will explore deficit and conflict, the different dimensions of the transference, the reading of shifting pathology in the transference, and the clinician's reaction to patients who confront them with powerful transference desires. Issues to be examined will include: "What is it like to sit with a patient struggling with conflicted Oedipal wishes toward the person of the therapist?" Or "What is it like to sit with a patient trying to fill a deficit in self structure through boundless idealization of the therapist?"

    Psychoanalytic Theories of Psychic Development

    This developmental sequence will be taught on Thursday evenings throughout the year. This course provides an overview of psychological development throughout the life cycle. The central tasks and conflicts of the major developmental phases, including infancy, Pre-Oedipal and Oedipal stages, are highlighted from the perspective of clinical and observational research. Latency, adolescence, adulthood and aging in later years are considered. We will begin by looking at Freud's original idea and then go on to look at how these ideas have been challenged, revised, and broadened. The area of gender identity, female/male development, identification, homosexual development, and clinical implications will be discussed in light of contemporary theory. These concepts will be illustrated through the use of case material from both the students and the instructor.


    This three trimester course will be taught on Tuesday evenings. Candidates will meet in a small group where they will be given the opportunity to present a case whose emphasis will be on analytic listening and building the foundation of analytic inquiry.
  • Second year

    Object Relations sequence

    There will be a year long sequence of the object- relations course. The first trimester will consider the object in Freudian theory and then will move on to examining Sandor Ferenczi's contribution including his active techniques, his use of empathy and relaxation therapy, and his reformulation of Freud's seduction theory. We will then examine Michael Balint's reformulation of Ferenczi's theories and his movement toward object relations, followed by a consideration of Melanie Klein's important contributions, including her formulation of projective identification and of the paranoid-schizoid and depressive positions.

    The second trimester will be devoted to an examination of the contribution of Bowlby (attachment theory), Winnicott, (and his emphasis on maternal interaction with the child), Fairbairn (the first wholly object-relational theorist), and Guntrip (and his work on the schizoid phenomena and object relations). In the third trimester we will move on to the contributions of modern theorists: Thomas Ogden (the autistic-contiguous position and the analytic third), Joyce McDougall (the processing of preverbal and non verbal experiences), Jeffrey Seinfeld (the bad object), Arnold Modell (the schizoid-object relational dilemma, paradox, different levels of reality), Sheldon Bach (sado-masochistic object relations), and Christopher Bollas (the unthought known and object-relational use of the countertransference).

    Working with Manifest and Latent Content

    In this course students are asked to present process notes, with minimal background information. Every few lines the presenter stops reading, and the class associates and is asked to analyze the material presented. This is aimed at facilitating student's comfort accessing their internal reactions to patient's presented material. This contemporary theoretical perspective focuses on helping students tune into the latent meaning of the material presented by the patients as well as to their own internal world.

    Working with Transference, Countertransference and Resistance

    This course will explore the evolution of psychoanalytic thinking about the concepts of transference, countertransference, and resistance from the classical to more contemporary positions, and the implications of theoretical changes to clinical understanding and techniques. Through lectures, readings, class discussion, and presentations of clinical process, the course will facilitate the candidates' evolutionary understanding of these concepts as well as their personal experience, recognition and clinical use. The relevance of these theories to clinical work will be illuminated. Attention to listening to oneself and the patient on multiple levels in order to identify and work effectively with transference, countertransference and resistance will be emphasized.

    Issues of Technique

    This course expands and deepens the discussion of transference, countertransference, resistance and intervention initiated in the first year and further explicates the nature of clinical frames and boundaries. It introduces the clinical use of dreams, to be studied more fully in the third year.


    This three trimester course will be taught on Tuesday evenings. Candidates will meet in a small group where they will be given the opportunity to present a case whose emphasis will be on analytic listening and building the foundation of analytic inquiry.
  • Third year

    Dream Interpretation

    This course will introduce the student to working with dream material. Primary focus will be on clinical application of dream interpretation with secondary emphasis on understanding various theoretical approaches to dream interpretation. Readings will focus on how the author used and understood dreams in work with clients. Central concepts of psychoanalytic thought such as manifest and latent content, transference and countertransference, and resistance will be understood in the context of dream interpretation.

    The Neurotic Patient - Contemporary Freudian Viewpoints

    During this trimester students will begin by looking at the neurotic patient who has reached the Oedipal stage but whose conflicts remain very much alive and thus influence his or her success in love and work. There will be a beginning focus on how the level of development influences the picture the patient presents. Students will also review some of the theoretical underpinnings of symptom formation and the origins of character pathology. Students will be invited to make connections between the concepts presented and their own clinical work.

    Self Psychology Sequence

    The Institute will offer a year-long sequence of Self psychology courses that will encompass both theory and clinical techniques. The course will cover Kohut's early interest in empathy as the primary investigative tool of the analyst, his early work with patients with narcissistic disorders and his development of a new psychoanalytic model of treatment which he called Psychoanalytic Self Psychology. The importance of the concepts "self," "selfobject," "selfobject transference," "fragmentation" and "rupture and repair sequences" will be examined and illustrated with clinical examples from the readings, the instructor's practice and candidates' presentations of clinical material from their practices.

    The course will include a brief comparison of Object Relations theories that share major commonalities with Psychoanalytic Self Psychology as well as a study of several area of Post-Kohutian Psychoanalytic Self Psychology such as contributions from infant research, the motivational theory of Lichtenberg, Lachmann, and Fosshage, Intersubjectivity (as defined by Stolorow, Atwood, Brandschaft & Orange) and Specificity Theory and Optimal Responsiveness as described by Bacal.

    The Dynamics and Treatment of Addictive Disorders

    This course will offer (1) an introductory overview of the problems of addiction including addiction vs. abuse, addiction vs. compulsion, co-dependence, and the meaning of the term "recovery." (2) A historical perspective including early contributions from psychoanalysis: Freud vs. Jung, the self-help movement and Alcoholics Anonymous, self-help versus professional mental health traditions, therapeutic communities, and current trends in the field of addiction; (3) Etiology of addiction; (4) the disease model of addiction; (5) psychodynamic approaches to addiction; (6) treatment considerations, including techniques of interviewing patients concerning their substance use, and (7) other addictions, such as eating disorders. This course will be offered as an elective

    Continuous Case Seminar

    Students select appropriate cases to be followed over a period of time. Focus is on process and on exploring resistance, transferences and interventions. Special emphasis is placed on patient responses to countertransference. The course will be presented during the entire year.


    This three trimester course will be taught on Tuesday evenings. Candidates will meet in a small group where they will be given the opportunity to present a case whose emphasis will be on analytic listening and building the foundation of analytic inquiry.
  • Fourth year

    The Treatment of Trauma-Related Disorders

    The purpose of this course will be to explore some of the evolving psychoanalytic perspectives about trauma, dissociation and the treatment of related symptom constellations. An object relations and relational orientation will be offered, as well as inclusion of techniques including cognitive-behavioral components to be used adjunctively in the psychoanalytic treatment of traumatic affective states, attachment and behavioral patterns. This course will be offered as an elective.

    Relational Psychology Sequence

    A year-long sequence of Relational courses is proposed that will review relevant theories, clinical issues and technical considerations that are regarded as relational. Since Relational Psychology represents an effort to bridge several theories that are relationship-focused (e.g. Interpersonal theory, Object Relations, Social Constructivism, Intersubjectivity, and Self Psychology), the course readings in this sequence will reflect essential ideas from these relationally-based theories.

    The sequence will begin with a focus on the concept of One-Person and Two Person psychologies. This will be followed by a study of intersubjectivity that will include an examination of the analytic literature regarding the subjectivity of an analyst. An examination of the concept of mutuality and the dialectical relationship to autonomy occurring in the analytic relationship will follow.

    The next trimester will begin with an examination of the term "enactment" and will concentrate on enactment, interaction, and projective identification in the Relational analysis. The controversies and dilemmas involved in analyst's self-disclosure will be included. We will consider the evolution of the concepts of transference and countertransference in a relational treatment.

    The final course in this sequence will be devoted to clinical process within a Relational Paradigm.

    Intro to Neuroscientific Approaches to Psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis

    In recent years neuroscientific discoveries like neuroplasticity (changes that occur in the organization of the brain) and the neurogenesis (growth of our neurons), have scientifically validated the effectiveness and ability of psychotherapy in general, and psychoanalysis in particular, to literally change the brain. This course will review the emerging research in neuroscience as it relates to psychoanalysis. Psychoanalytic theories will be compared with current neuroscientific developments and the clinical implications will be explored.

    Integrating Theoretical Models

    Using clinical material presented by candidates, students will discuss how one can integrate a mixed model approach in understanding the clinical material presented and discuss its application to treatment.

    Psychoanalytic Research

    As a newly licensed profession in New York State, it behooves psychoanalysis to test clinical experience against theoretical concepts that may be outmoded. The course will discuss underlying assumptions of research designs, review past research and discuss the pros and cons when generalized research is compared to the following of a clinical case.


    This course will highlight the basic ethical issues of clinical practice with case examples from the students. Issues such as Duty of Care, Informed Consent, Confidentiality and Licensing and Code of Ethics will be discussed.

    Termination and Endings: Issues of Context and Process

    The goal of this course is to consider the vicissitudes of termination in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy. Is it ending and/or beginning? Is it attachment and therefore individuating from an attachment perspective? Is it a repeat of earlier abandonment traumas? Should patients ever leave us? What is it like to always be left or on the verge of being left? Is it Approachment or Reapprochment? These are some of the important issues for us to look at in our work, and ourselves, around the reality of endings in our analytic work. Students are expected to write a case presentation to be presented in the spring semester of their fourth year which should reflect an understanding of and compilation of their four years of psychoanalytic study. The subject of the case should be a patient seen three times per week for a minimum of two years and should include clinical as well as a theoretical understanding of the patient. Students will receive a certificate of completion in psychoanalytic training at the end of their four years of study.


    Requirements for Certificate of Completion
    All candidates who are accepted into the training program are qualified to take all courses. If, however, a candidate fails to take a required course during the course of his/her training, he or she will be required to make up that course before being granted a certificate of completion. If a candidate does not complete the course work for a particular class, he/she might be required to repeat that course.